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Terms of Use and Copyright

Copyright and Publication
Unauthorized Use

By using, you agree to in no way copy, appropriate, or distribute, any GeodSoft content except as explicitly provided under the GeodSoft Publication License, and to not violate the the terms under Unauthorized Use. By copying or distributing in any manner, any content found on, you agree to be governed exclusively by the terms and sanctions of the GeodSoft Publication License with regard to use of any content from You agree explicitly that regardless of any provisions in U.S. Copyright Law, or any federal, state, or local laws or regulations, that by copying, publishing, or distributing any content from you have entered into a contractual agreement with George Shaffer and and to be bound by all legal provisions in the Terms of Use and Copyright page and the GeodSoft Publication License.

Any time that the words "Terms" or "terms" or the phrase "Terms of Use" are used above or below these are intended to mean "Terms of Use and Copyright page" unless the context requires that they be understood to mean something else, and any time the word "page" may be omitted, the phrase "Terms of Use and Copyright" should be read as if "page" is included. Any time the word "License" is used by itself, it should be understood that it means the GeodSoft Publication License, unless it is clear from the context that it must mean something else.

Some parts of the Open Publication License were used in the development GeodSoft Publication License. The GeodSoft Publication License is, however, no longer, if it ever was, an open content publication license. It might now be described as a limited use publication license.

GeodSoft Publication License v. 2.1.01 January 1, 2014


All content on the GeodSoft web site is copyrighted by George Shaffer and covered by the GeodSoft Publication License. Only pages with the long copyright notice that includes "This material may be distributed" immediately after "George Shaffer." may be copied, published, or distributed in accordance with the terms of the GeodSoft Publication License. Other pages are covered by copyright, the GeodSoft Publication License, plus your contractual agreement under these Terms of Use not to copy such material. Any violations of these terms regarding content which may not be copied or distributed under the terms of the GeodSoft Publication License are subject to any sanctions provided in the GeodSoft Publication License. Pages not allowed to be copied, distributed, or published by the GeodSoft Publication License may not be copied, distributed, or published without prior written permission from George Shaffer. When the term "written" is used in the Terms of Use or License, it is understood to include digitally signed email. web site content may be copied, distributed, or published in part, as explicitly provided in this License in any medium, physical or electronic, provided that the terms of this License are adhered to, and that this License or an incorporation of it by reference is displayed in any reproduction. Logo graphics are subject to specific additional restrictions described below. Individual pages may have page specific conditions which may supplement, amend or replace terms or conditions in this License.

In a faithfully mirrored site the links in the navigation aids, site map, and page specific content MAY point to the appropriate pages on the mirrored site. Any links to pages that do not exist on the mirrored site MUST return to the corresponding page on; this necessarily includes all CGI content (Perl scripts), as these have always been private, and a mirrored site could only display a non working, static page copied from the output of these Perl programs, in violation of these Terms. Any link or links in the copyright notice which follows, MUST point back to, and if the link is to the Terms, it MUST point to the Terms of Use on Proper form for an incorporation by reference is as follows and must be exactly as follows (as in cut and pasted from the Terms page source code into each HTML document to which this License applies):

Copyright © 2000 - 2014 by George Shaffer. This material may be distributed only subject to the terms and conditions set forth in (or These terms are subject to change. Distribution is subject to the current terms, or at the choice of the distributor, those in an earlier, digitally signed electronic copy of (or cgi-bin/ from the time of the distribution. Distribution of substantively modified versions of GeodSoft content is prohibited without the explicit written permission of George Shaffer. Distribution of the work or derivatives of the work, in whole or in part, for commercial purposes is prohibited unless prior written permission is obtained from George Shaffer. Distribution in accordance with these terms, for unrestricted and uncompensated public access, non profit, or internal company use is allowed.

For the purposes of the GeodSoft Publication License, the only valid copyright notice and incorporation by reference is the one above. If you used any GeodSoft content after Feb. 17,  2007,  you must have replaced the notice on any pages where the notice was not identical, with the one above, for the license then in effect to be in compliance with these terms. If you are not in compliance with all Terms of the License, the only license which applies is the current license, this one, version 2.1.01. All licenses since Feb. 17, 2007,  have required that they be saved with a digital signature and have a time stamp near the bottom of the page. We try to keep the individual page copyright notices consistent with the Terms of Use but this requires updating and replacing every page on the site. This site is operated at a loss an only infrequently maintained. At all times it is the current Terms of Use and current GeodSoft Publication License which apply and not the possibly outdated copyright notices which may appear on any or all other pages.

As of version 1.4, Feb. 17, 2007, the display of the Terms of Use and Copyright is time stamped and the saved Terms of Use page is required to be digitally signed. The Terms must be digitally signed within fifteen minutes of the time they are accessed. It is strongly recommended that the page be refreshed or reloaded just before saving so the time stamp on the page will be as current as possible. Any tampering with the time stamp is prohibited. By doing so, the would be distributor loses all rights to use any GeodSoft material, as provided in Section V. Violations. The time stamp is the 20 digit number at the very bottom of the white part of this page.

The key used for digital signing of the Terms of Use and Copyright must be a PGP or GnuPG key, and belong to the person responsible for the distribution, and remain available for future verification of the license. It must be loaded to public key servers and be the only active key for the owner at the time the terms are signed, and remain the only active key if the signed terms need to be verified. The signing must be performed on a computer with a system time within a few seconds of the real date and time. The distributor should know or record the local time offset from UTC. It is suggested that the digitally signed terms be saved on one or more, write once CDs or DVDs, preferably with all GeodSoft content as it is used.

If a situation arises where a distributor of GeodSoft material needs to provide a verifiably dated or digitally signed copy of the Terms to establish the right to distribute GeodSoft material, the distributor should expect to communicate from a valid ISP email account, or an email account associated with the web (or other distribution protocol) domain. Real name, address, and phone number should be provided, and agree with at least one of the contacts provided by whois information for the distribution domain. Such a situation is a contract negotiation and a contract negotiation with an anonymous person is meaningless.

More than one person with an authoritative position with respect to the distribution domain may sign the Terms of Use and Copyright within a 48 hour time period. It is recommended the signatures not be performed on the same computer (which must contain the private key of each signer for the signing to work). Signing on the same computer would require a separate copy of the Terms for each signer; a different filename or directory would be required for each signer. This would need to be done within the 15 minute period from when the Terms are refreshed and saved. If signed on different computers, then each copy of the Terms of Use and Copyright page must be preserved with each corresponding signature, as the signatures will never verify a Terms page that is even one second different than another. At least one person signing the GeodSoft Terms of Use must appear as a contact on the domain registration page. If the other persons signing the Terms of Use and Copyright are not listed in the distribution domain registration, proof must be provided that they are a senior person in the entity distributing GeodSoft content, with authority to authorize the distribution of content such as GeodSoft's.

Any place that these terms refer to a link to, it must be a working link, i.e., invoke the default browser and display the linked to page. Electronic document formats that do not support live links, such as plain text, and print or any physical media, that is not an image of an actual web page, may meet the link requirement by providing both the complete URL plus appropriate descriptive text. Generally appropriate descriptive text means the description used on the contents page, like "Beginner's Guide to Secure Shell (SSH)" or "Good and Bad Passwords" from the How-To area, or "Password Cracking Basics: Tools and Techniques" from the "Good and Bad Password" section contents, for a specific page.

If material from is distributed in a physical electronic format, such as CD or DVD, the digitally signed Terms must be included. is a web site and as such consists of many HTML documents (web pages), text documents, executable scripts, and other components. Web pages and displayable web content may be printed and subsequently photocopied, provided that any printout that is more than one physical page be treated as an indivisible unit, and that all copyright notices, licenses, or terms of use, are preserved intact with the other physical pages. web pages typically contain standard headers, footers, and navigation aids that may be of little value, except as part of a working web site, and a unique portion that comprises the page contents. The links and standard page elements may be removed from the unique page contents, provided that the copyright notice and license reference with any links are preserved, or updated with the notice from the Terms page if these are newer than on the content page being distributed. The unique page contents may be reformatted and used in other media. Note that many sections, such as the "Good and Bad Passwords How-To" or the "Ten Practical Security Steps" have a common section title that is part of the unique page contents. If multiple pages are used this title needs to be retained. If only a single page is used, the section title may be omitted. The HTML title, which is part of the HEAD and not the BODY is unique to every page and must be retained. If your site has a clear HTML title standard, this may be negotiated. The "previous," "up" and "next" links at the bottom of all pages in many sections are invariably unique to each page; they may be kept, moved, modified, or discarded.

Unique page contents may be aggregated, provided that each section (single Web page or group of pages from the same subdirectory tree) includes a separate URL linking to the original location from which these contents were obtained. Where multiple pages from a section are included the link should be to the section contents page. Where a single page from a section is used the link should be to the specific page. If a part of a page is used, the link should be to that page, and to the closest anchor above the used contents, if the page contains anchors. The visible text in the link may repeat the actual URL, or be the section title for multiple pages, or be the page title for a single page, or be a concise description of the subject when a portion of a page is used. Both the URL and description may be used. Such an aggregation must include at least one copyright notice and license reference in a prominent location. For the purposes of this license, aggregation means the inclusion of unique web page content from two or more web pages into a single document (e.g., HTML, XML, DOC) or file.

Some web pages and text documents displayed on the GeodSoft web site may not contain the copyright notice and license reference. If they are used with other GeodSoft material, already containing one or more copyright notices and license references, and unmistakably part of the GeodSoft content, additional copyright notice and license references are not required. If GeodSoft text or pages lacking copyright notice and license references, are used singly or in such a manner that they may be confused with material from other sources, then a GeodSoft copyright notice and license reference must be added to such material by the distributor.

The GeodSoft web site includes source code for executable scripts or programs. Generally, these have their own copyright notice, with a brief and permissive license that explicitly allows modifications. Anyone may opt to take advantage of this more liberal license, as it pertains to these scripts or programs. However, once modified, this source code or executable scripts, must not be distributed with GeodSoft content, without prior written permission. Unlike other GeodSoft material, the distributor, or anyone accessing the distributor's copy of GeodSoft material, may copy any of these scripts or programs and develop them for any purpose allowed by their liberal licenses. Typically the copyright notice and brief terms need to be retained within the source code, as long as the code is recognizably derived from GeodSoft content. When running as a program, normally no credit, copyright notice, license, or link to GeodSoft need be displayed, unless the license to the specific code states otherwise.

Some small scripts or programs appear as examples within GeodSoft Web pages, or may appear as linked to text files without this source code specific copyright notice and license. The following text may be added to the beginning of such source code which may then be used in accordance with these terms and conditions: "Copyright 2000 - 2014 George Shaffer. Anyone may use or modify this code for any purpose, PROVIDED that as long as it is recognizably derived from this code, this copyright notice remains intact and unchanged. No warranties of any kind are expressed or implied." These terms do not apply, and may not be attached to any CGI scripts or other programs that may be executed from the GeodSoft web site (any file that ends in ".pl"), or which may temporarily or unintentionally be exposed to web access, or which may be obtained via any failure of or breach in GeodSoft web site security. Any scripts, that are intended to be available as open source, will appear in a web page or be copied to a non executable file with a ".txt" extension, and be linked to from one or more web pages describing how the script relates to the linking page.

The GeodSoft web site includes a unique graphic logo. The favicon.ico graphic file is a simplified form of the logo and may be used as a icon in a browser and desktop links referencing The favicon.ico may also be used in association with web links to Otherwise, the GeodSoft logo may not be copied, distributed, modified, or used in any way, except exactly as it appears on the GeodSoft Web Pages of which it is a part. It will, and must, appear as part of all web page printouts and photocopies of original GeodSoft Web pages.

If any GeodSoft web pages are copied to and are accessible from any other web site, the pages may be used exactly as they appear on the GeodSoft site (mirrored) and any links to pages that are not local to the mirror site, MUST be adjusted to link back to the original pages at If document directories are not at the same depth relative to the DOCUMENT_ROOT as the original documents, directory names above the document directory or directories may be adjusted, but all document directories and all HTML and text documents should retain their original names. Mirroring the Terms of Use does not meet the requirements for a digitally signed copy of these terms, nor waive the requirement that the distributor provide such a digitally signed copy.

If GeodSoft Web page content is used on another site, and the full page is not an accurate replica of the original, it must begin with a link to the original web page, must not use the logo, and must not use the links and contents of the standard navigation area which is separate from the unique page content. The unique textual content must remain unaltered but the format, font, color, and other visual attributes may be changed. The copyright notice and license reference must appear in its entirety, with working links. Links to external web sites or pages that have changed or are no longer available, may be updated or removed as appropriate.

If the web site goes offline permanently, any active links to otherwise required by this license are no longer required but the reference to must remain. No other requirements are altered.

The content of GeodSoft's web site, may be indexed by public web search engines, except as excluded by /robots.txt. (All other automated access is prohibited as described in Unauthorized Use below.)

If GeodSoft content is entered into a non commercial database or other mechanism that results in the display of less than complete web pages, then each display must include the complete copyright notice and license reference.

Commercial use or distribution, e.g., a fee based searchable database, or use in a commercial printed book, requires prior written permission from George Shaffer under terms to be determined at the time permission is granted, if it is granted. Commercial use includes any display of GeodSoft content where the person or organization displaying the content receives monetary compensation for such display; this specifically includes web sites that display any advertising, even if no advertising is displayed in association with GeodSoft content.

We encourage links to the GeodSoft web site but prohibit the use of our graphic logo without prior written permission, though favicon.ico may be used where appropriate.


The GeodSoft Publication License does not allow substantive modification without prior written approval by George Shaffer. Substantive modifications include any changes of meaning or the addition or removal of selected content. Conditions will be agreed on if permission is granted. Formatting changes, removal of Web page navigation aids and graphics as discussed above is allowed (or required), spelling corrections and corrections of obvious typographic or grammatical errors are permitted.

Each HTML document or web page is a component of a computer application. A web site is an information delivery application. It should be self-evident that modifying a link changes the behavior of the page and application and is a substantive modification. The link modifications that are allowed or required are discussed above. One modification is NEVER allowed. This is modifying the '<a href="">' (the invisible functional part of a link) to link to another domain, when the visible text in the link includes "geodsoft" or "GeodSoft". The large majority of GeodSoft links are relative links and contain no domain name so that the site is easily moveable. The few links that include GeodSoft in any variation are intended to remain as they are.

Language translations are allowed; the copyright notice and license reference must be preserved in English and also be translated to the same language as the content.

Selective quoting in the context of a review or commentary is not considered a modification. See VI. FAIR USE.

The GeodSoft Publication License may be used as a model for other content licenses, without attribution or incorporating the copyright notice and license by reference. If you use large portions of the license, we would appreciate an acknowledgment somewhere in your terms of use or on your web site. There is no need to include any reference to GeodSoft in an adapted copyright notice and license by reference.


If GeodSoft content is aggregated with other works, material from each separate web page, or related group of pages from a directory, must begin with a URL linking to the original location. The author of the collective work, may at his or her choice include the complete copyright notice and license reference, with working links if in an electronic format, at the beginning of each discrete section containing GeodSoft content, or may include the entire copyright notice and license by reference on the copyright page and identify each section where GeodSoft content is used. GeodSoft content may be mirrored in a collective work. Mirroring the Terms of Use does not meet the requirements for a digitally signed copy of these terms, nor waive the requirement that the distributor provide such a digitally signed copy.

Any collection where GeodSoft content comprises over 35,000 words must contain a prominent acknowledgment of the GeodSoft content, in addition to the copyright notice and license by reference. If the work is a CD ROM or other electronic medium that may be used off line, and the pages are visual replicas of the original GeodSoft Web pages, the graphic logo must be included on the media, and there must be a clear separate notice that additional restrictions, as described above, apply to the graphic logo.

The GeodSoft copyright and License do not apply to any other content of the collective work, or the work as a whole. While the author of a collective work has the right to copyright the collective work, GeodSoft content may not be included in any collective work where the collective author attempts to use their collective copyright to prevent further copying of any GeodSoft content in accordance with these terms. If the collective author places a restrictive copyright on the work as a whole, they must make an explicit statement that this does not apply to the GeodSoft Sections, which may be used and copied in accordance with the GeodSoft Publication License. The GeodSoft copyright covers all GeodSoft content wherever it may appear, and only the GeodSoft Publication License may restrict how that content is used or copied. GeodSoft content may not be included in any work that includes any form of copy protection, digital rights management, watermarking, or technology designed to track the use of, or hinder access to, the content.

The collective distributor may charge a modest fee to cover the costs of media and packaging, typically about one dollar but not more than two. He or she may also charge a modest fee that covers the actual costs of packing and shipping the collective work. If distributed at an event like a convention or trade show, the distributor may charge the media fee but not a shipping fee. Charging more than the actual costs of creating and delivering physical media is clearly commercial, and a violation of these terms.


GeodSoft content is licensed and provided "as is" without warranty of any kind, express or implied, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability and fitness for a particular purpose or a warranty of non-infringement.


Any person or organization that reproduces or distributes GeodSoft content in violation of the terms of this license forfeits all future rights to use, copy, or distribute GeodSoft content. If I believe someone has displayed or distributed GeodSoft content in violation of the license terms BUT they have 1) read this entire page, and 2) made a serious effort to comply with it's terms, and 3) the violation was not intentional, I may choose to negotiate a settlement. This is entirely at my discretion. I will decide if I believe claims they have read this page, made a serious effort to comply, and that the violation was unintentional.

In addition to forfeiting all future rights to use any GeodSoft content, any person or organization who violates the Terms of Use and Copyright page provisions and or the GeodSoft Publication License, agrees to pay George Shaffer one dollar ($1.00) per day per word for any GeodSoft content that was used in violation of the Terms or License. Any one who has used content for any commercial use without explicit written permission agrees to pay George Shaffer two dollars ($2.00) per day per word for this violation of the License. The violation is deemed to begin on the day that a web page containing unauthorized content is made public or that physical copies, electronic or printed are first distributed. If this date cannot be reliably established, the violation is deemed to begin on the date that the content was first published on The violation is deemed to end on the day after any public display of content is removed or distribution of physical media containing content has ceased, and the distributor has entered a binding written agreement to never again distribute content.

In addition, any distributor who violates either the Terms of Use or GeodSoft Publication License agrees to pay all legal fees, court costs, collection costs, and any other costs incurred by George Shaffer in his attempt to stop the illegal use of his content and to collect the penalty fee described in the preceding paragraph.

Failure to enforce our rights for any period of time shall not prevent us from doing so at a future time. Failure to pursue any violator or violators of our Terms and or License, shall not prevent us from pursuing any violator at a future time.

Any litigation relating to, the GeodSoft Publication License, or the Terms of Use and Copyright shall be conducted in Alexandria, Virginia, or in the Court with jurisdiction closest to Alexandria, Virginia. If any state laws are applicable, they shall be the laws of the Commonwealth of Virginia.


As with all copyrighted material, fair use exceptions apply, but these are frequently subject to dispute. If you have any doubt that your intended use is covered by fair use, please obtain prior permission for such use. Keep in mind the explicit contract agreed to by using this site and further by copying from it. I agree with the principle of fair use, and thus the terms of use allow GeodSoft content to be used in a manner consistent with fair use.

So long as the use of GeodSoft content is the lesser of no more than three consecutive paragraphs or 500 words, but never more than one page, and provided proper attribution is included, it is not necessary to include the copyright notice and license by reference. More non consecutive total content may be used if it is properly attributed, and is clearly in the context of a review or commentary. Proper attribution for the purposes of this paragraph is "This material was written by George Shaffer and may be found at URL" The wording may be changed, provided that the core meaning is not. "by George Shaffer" and "from URL" (where URL is a valid URL for the location where the content was found, or a working link in an electronic document), should be sufficient. I do not believe a meaningful review or commentary can be written in response to an anonymous or unidentified author.

Use the most specific URL available. Link to the specific page that the material was from and not the section. If the page has internal anchors (link locations designated by a # in the link); link to the closest anchor that precedes the material being used. The visible part of the link should identify the specific topic being discussed, and not be a general title or phrase. As long as additional material in the review comes from the same page at a location below the original link, no further links need be provided. If additional material is used from a different page, or from a location on the same page above the original link, then a new specific link must be provided for that material. As long as it is clear from the context what is and is not GeodSoft material, additional attributions are not needed, but if it is not clear, then it must be made clear by the use of phrases such as "by George Shaffer" or "from"


If any part of this license is found to be unenforceable in any jurisdiction, the remaining portions of the license remain in force.


Simply for our information, GeodSoft would appreciate notice of distribution of our content to more than a handful of recipients, especially where we would not otherwise know of such use, as in a company. I've written everything on this site from scratch and never received any form of compensation. If someone finds my material useful, I don't think it is unreasonable to ask to be informed of that.

We would appreciate a complimentary copy of any work, physical or electronic, where GeodSoft content constitutes more than a minor portion of the content, and a significant number of copies are made.

END. This line is the end of the GeodSoft Publication License.

Unauthorized Use

Users of are authorized to access information on this site via the HTTP or HTTPS protocols from web browsers or other software or hardware that includes end user web browsing and web content access as part of its basic functionality. Users may access the sites via DNS entries or IP addresses. Users may use any URL provided on any page or directly created from any web form to access content on our site. Users may access content via links from other web sites, or received from other users by e-mail or other means. Users may shorten such URLs by removing query information, then HTML document names, then lower level directory names, in an attempt to find more general information, if our navigation aids do not seem suitable to your needs. All other attempts to obtain information from, or access is prohibited.

Public search (web indexing) services that respect the restrictions specified in robots.txt and limit retrieval rates, are allowed. Only authorized spiders and their operators working from the same or related IP addresses are allowed to access robots.txt. All other script, robot, programmed, or automated access is prohibited, unless prior permission is requested and granted. Automated access includes browser prefetch addons, such as Firefox's Fasterfox. Any attempt to access unauthorized files, directories, or obtain other information, to interrupt services, to create significant numbers of error messages or log file entries, or to cause programs or security to fail, by entering invalid or fraudulent information into web forms, by constructing invalid URLs, or otherwise transmitting to GeodSoft computers any data, which may have such effect, is prohibited. Use of any protocol other that HTTP and HTTPS is prohibited. Deliberate transmission of corrupt or invalid IP packets to is prohibited. The use of any port scanning tools or other hardware or software designed to obtain information about our computers or network, not explicitly provided on our web pages is prohibited.

Detection of any prohibited activities may result in blocked access and or may be reported to your ISP or any other appropriate authorities. In 2007, dramatically increased hosting costs driven by excessive bot activity forced active measures against unauthorized automated access. Other unauthorized activities were detected. The amount of (unwanted) traffic was substantially reduced. Please do not jeopardize your access and possibly that of innocent customers at your ISP by using page prefetch tools, wget, or any other automated web access or retrieval tool. A single automated access of ten or fewer pages may permanently cost you access to this site. Depending on varying circumstances, you may get away with multiple automated accesses, and then one day find yourself locked out permanently. reserves the right to block any person or persons, company, organization, IP address or addresses or block or range of IP addresses, user agent, ISP, country, or any other entity that I may have overlooked, for any reason that seems to us to be in our own interests. Not that it's technologically possible, but we will never discriminate against a U.S. citizen based on age, sex, race, national origin or place of birth, or sexual or political orientation. Regarding physical handicaps, when this site was developed, we did our best to comply with the accessibility guidelines then available. Newer standards suggest techniques we use are not optimal. We apologize if anyone finds this site difficult to use. Ease of use was the overriding criteria in all design decisions; if we failed to accomplish our goals, that is regretted. This site has no source of income and operates entirely at a loss. All material here is presented in the hope that some will find it useful, but as is, without warranty of any kind. If this site does not meet any of your needs there are millions of other web sites to choose from, and we invite you to do so.

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Copyright © 2000 - 2014 by George Shaffer. This material may be distributed only subject to the terms and conditions set forth in (or These terms are subject to change. Distribution is subject to the current terms, or at the choice of the distributor, those in an earlier, digitally signed electronic copy of (or from the time of the distribution. Distribution of substantively modified versions of GeodSoft content is prohibited without the explicit permission of George Shaffer. Distribution of the work or derivatives of the work, in whole or in part, for commercial purposes is prohibited unless prior permission is obtained from George Shaffer. Distribution in accordance with these terms, for unrestricted and uncompensated public access, non profit, or internal company use is allowed.

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